Recently, I caught my eyes an article in an electronic mass media with the title “Death marked him and he came to Cyprus to become a doctor” and a photo showing a teenage boy staring the photographer. I went through the whole article and it was about a 14 years old refuge boy from Syria between many others Syrian refugees, who they spent their lives crowning letters to reach Cyprus by boat. The Syrian refugees in Kokkinotrimithia’s reception area had gathered in a circle and began to described a journey of horror, with some of them lifting their t-shirts and showing the bruises caused to their bodies by the roar. I looked again the photo of the teenager refugee from Syria, who came to Cyprus unaccompanied by a boat to find his father and instinctively my thoughts went to my son, who is far away, somewhere in South Atlantic Ocean, as cadet in a tanker. Of course, my son is not in the same position with this Syrian refugee boy, but as a mother, my thoughts went to the mother of this boy, I felt empathy and compassion for this woman who was forced to sent her child to a foreigner country in order to save his life. The journalist was discussing the circumstances of their dangerous journey with the refugees and the boy said “ I thought my heart would stop. It was scary. I was afraid we were going to die ”. He said he came to Cyprus to find his father and that his family paid five thousand dollars to Turkish to travel to Cyprus with a boat. His mother and the six other children stayed to Syria and they moved to another safest place. Indeed, how difficult it is for a family to be separated in such difficult circumstances of a war. They asked him if he has lost any relative in the war and the boy’s look suddenly changed and he turned his face to the side. Silence. It was obvious that memories woke up. It is clear that 14-year-old Ibrahim has gone through many hard events, which have marked his childhood. “My cousin was killed. He was about the same age with me. We hanged out a lot”. Τhe memories of his neighborhood are shocking. “What I remembered are the dead peopled laying down. Many of my neighbors were killed”. Ibrahim came to Cyprus to go to school. He has not been going to school for years. “What I remember before the war was school. I was a good student. I have to go to the fifth grade”. His memories of school made him somehow resolved, “I was reading home alone,” he says proudly. I concluded that Imprahim is still a child with his own dreams like other children of his age, although he lived a violent war in his country. He is dreaming to study and become a doctor, to go back his country and help other people. My little boy I wish you, your dream come true. Good luck.
Although the IENE6 project is coming to an end, we have some good news to share with you. A new project (IENE8) entitled “Empowering migrant and refugee families with parenting skills” , co-ordinated by the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) will be starting soon. The new project will expand the IENE6 Knowledge Hub by focusing on the parenting needs of refugees whilst in transit and after they have settled in refugee camps. I have copied and slightly edited some text from the IENE8 application which provides more detail about the project:
“All children fleeing conflict, especially those travelling alone are vulnerable to abuse of different kinds: sexual and labour exploitation including trafficking, being sold and being coerced into marriage, in their homes, communities, society or in places where migrants and/or refugees reside – including reception centres, refugee camps or informal settlements at source, transit and destination countries. There is an emerging need in understanding the diverse conditions of migration, how they may influence children and what professionals and volunteers can do that effectively and positively affect the well-being of these families. Thus, there is a need to protect and prevent unwanted situations within the migrant and refugees families, focusing on children. The developmental paths for very young children in immigrant families remains poorly characterised. Ecological-developmental models generally recognise that the parents’, as well as the child’s, experiences help shape the course of social development for young children; but little is known about how key aspects of parental or child-rearing history, including immigration, affect components of social development across children from diverse national origins and ethnic groups. Here we consider the family- cultural aspects, and its influence on parenting practice and subsequent child social development.
Understanding the impact of migration on children’s and families within their own community and host country is a multi-factorial and transnational issue. It requires considering not only the cultural origins of the parents but their own migration histories. IENE projects highlighted the need for training of health workers, volunteers on transcultural issues aiming to provide culturally competent and compassionate care and it particularly refers to psychological support. The IENE 8 project aims to provide education and training to professionals and volunteers working with migrants and refuges in regards to parenting skills, health care of the family and psychological support. It aims to enable them in providing support, knowledge and empowerment to migrant and refugee parents, which will help them to nurture, protect and educate their children under difficult circumstances. The project will expand the existing Knowledge hub (Khub) (IENE6) for nurses, other health professionals and volunteers (http://ienerefugeehub.eu/). Khub is a centre or focal point for exchange of knowledge, support, development, ideas and useful tools”.
My colleagues I and will continue to use this blog to discuss relevant issues and bring you news and developments. We invite all our supporters and readers of this blog to offer feedback and blog postings by sending their contributions to me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Wishing our new project lots of success!
Thank you all and waiting to hear from you.
The first time I had heard about the project “Immigrants” was from my daughter, which came excited one afternoon from school and told me: ‘ mom, our teacher won the first prize in the 5th national competition for fine arts of secondary general education» . She was very proud and feeling much admiration for this event showing me the photo of the project which won the prize.
The project depicting figures of drowning adults and children, which have been made of expanding foam, and arranged on an old fishing boat, received first prize in the competition titled “The Saatchi Gallery/ Deutsche Bank Art Prize for Schools 2016”. It was created by students of Apostolos Loucas district lyceum in Kolossi, under the supervision of their art teacher, painter Popi Nicolaou, for the 5th Cypriot Arts Competition among schools. It portrays very successful y, the refugee and immigration tragedy that unfolds in the Mediterranean Sea with the thousands of people who seek a better tomorrow.
I felt very proud about the distinction of Cypriot school students and their teacher for their expressive way of art. I feel the need to thank them from the depths of my heart, because by their work they expressed what many Cypriots feel about the Syrian refugee drama. Cypriots know very well, what it means to lose everything in a moment and to become a refugee and we are shocked by the endless drama of these people. There was no better way of conveying compassion feelings to Syria’s people , not by famous artists but from young Cypriots.
Looking the art project you can see the immigrants’ expression reflecting their anxiety. Their faces are horrified, their eyes are wide open, waiting for a promising sign and their lips are sealed and the taste of bitterness because of frustration.
Αs Ms Nikolaou says: “Syrian refugees betrayed by their country are experiencing an untold terror, are fighting for their lives, because of the war. They choose life before death comes. They travel in a boat, between huge waves, having on bow the hope. Their unique expectation to see the distant horizon of an island, which would put an end to their nightmare”
I am grateful to Dr Mizan Hoque, a London GP, a friend of the IENE6 project, and frequent volunteer in refugee camps, for sharing with us this informative and very personal reflection from his recent visit to the Rohingya refugee camps. I am sure this piece will move you. Thank you Mizan. Apologies for not being able to copy the beautiful photos which accompanied this reflection. Professor Irena Papadopoulos
Family, friends, and colleagues have enquired about my recent trip to the Rohingya Refugee camps. I have documented some reflections from this very memorable visit, and have also offered glimpses of some of the relief activities we were involved with.
This reflective piece is not intended to provide intricate details of the development of the Doctors Worldwide ‘Postgraduate Fellowship in Refugee Health’. However, for those who may be interested, the official project report (which consists of more details, the relevant references, and evaluation findings) is being produced and can be shared in due course. (Please notify me via email if you would like to get a copy of this).
Many have described the Rohingya population to be the most persecuted minority in the world. This impoverished stateless community has suffered under decades of discrimination, and lack of access to basic rights and services. At present, there are over 700,000 Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh who have been forcibly displaced from their homes and villages. The personal accounts of the refugees epitomises the harrowing physical and emotional trauma suffered by every man, woman and child due to this tragedy. Many had witnessed acts of appalling barbarity, including the deliberate mass burning of people within their homes, the massacre of children and adults,
indiscriminate shootings, widespread rape of women and young girls, and the burning and destruction of schools, markets and mosques.
1.3 The camps
Driving into the refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar, I sat recollecting the many news stories that I had heard about the Rohingya over the years. To be able to see the camps, and their occupants first hand, conjured up an overwhelming mix of emotions. My first reaction upon seeing the camps was that human beings should never have to live like this. There were ‘miles and miles’ of makeshift shelters, shaping the landscape for as far as the eyes could see. They were usually constructed with bamboo sticks and bits of fabric, it looked like it was something between a tent and a poorly constructed hut. The living conditions were intensely overcrowded, at times with several families living within one of these structures. Walking up to the camps, the smell of sewage was very
prominent, and the poor hygiene conditions contributed to the vast numbers of flies and mosquitoes in the camps.
Despite the desperate living conditions, these were among the fortunate ones. They were able to make the perilous journey to the refugee camps. Each had their own story of how they left behind their homes, their lives and many of their loved ones in a quest for survival. During our drive to one of the camps, an abandoned Rohingya boat lay wrecked on the beach side. The broken planks of the boat hid within it many stories. I wondered where the boat was made, and whether the one who made it knew that it would become a vessel for the survival of some of the Rohinga refugees. I tried to imagine the horrific journey the occupants of the boat had to make. The image of that wrecked boat still sends chills down my spine.
1.4 Their stories
The human stories behind the headlines are always intensely powerful. The stories I heard are far too many to recount in this piece, but as I write this, I see the faces of the people I met, each with their own narrative. I recall the 22 year old young man who showed us bullet wound injuries sustained at the back of his right calf while fleeing from his village. I recall the two-day old baby whose mother brought him to the antenatal clinic as he was not responsive. He was septic and blue, with little signs of life. The local hospital was some distance away, and despite resuscitation attempts, he did not make it to see the third day of his life. I remember feeling emotionally paralysed when being asked about the case of a 12 year old girl who had been raped and was now
three months pregnant.
My visits to the Rohingya refugee camps, as well as Syrian refugee camps beforehand, emphasised to me again and again how these were people were not dissimilar to us. Their aspirations were for a better tomorrow. To be safe, to be able to earn a living, to see their children grow up and be educated. To be respected as humans. They knew full well who they were, and where they were from. And to be able to spend some time with them, hear their stories, hold their hands and share in their tears was truly humbling.
2.1 Doctors Worldwide – Field assessments, Cox’s Bazar
Two field assessments were carried out in November and December 2017 by a team of medical specialists to assess the capacity of local NGO’s in meeting the health requirements for Rohingya refugees. Many of the charities responding to the crisis did not have health programme management experience, and there was a wide disparity in the quality of care that was being delivered. Medical needs in the Rohingya refugee camps were complicated by a number of factors, including alarming rates of malnutrition, low levels of health literacy and education, and historically low immunisation rates.
Suboptimal medical practices identified from some of the healthcare clinics included: formulating diagnoses and management plans prematurely based upon the presenting symptom alone, without taking an adequate history or performing relevant clinical examinations; adult drug dosages being prescribed for children; the absence of safety-netting advice when required; and poor instructions on how to take medications (dose, frequency and duration). Systemic problems were also identified, including of poor documentation; poor triage of critically unwell patients; and variable levels of surveillance and reporting of infectious diseases. Following consultations with a range of local and international partners, and focus group discussions with local doctors, it was determined that a priority area of intervention would be to support local Bangladeshi doctors and healthcare workers to be better equipped to respond to the crisis by means
of a training programme. As such, this Postgraduate Fellowship (PGF) in Refugee Health was proposed.
2.2 Postgraduate Fellowship (PGF) in Refugee Health The project emphasises sustainable capacity building of human resources for the healthcare response. It utilises the skills of volunteers, to help support the training, development, supervision, mentorship and deployment of local physicians to allow them to better respond through local
organisations to the complex needs of the Rohingya refugee population. A bespoke training course is being developed to be delivered in 2-month blocks to groups of 20-30 doctors. Relationships have been established with local Bangladeshi academics to facilitate joint ownership of training interventions. One of the key advantages of this project as opposed to the simple provision of medical supplies or supplementing clinical service by means of volunteers, is the strengthening of local capacity to continue to respond to the medical needs of this vulnerable community.
The Postgraduate Fellowship (PGF) in Refugee Health consists of 8 modules:
1. Introduction to Health in Humanitarian Emergencies
2. Triage and Acute care management
3. Key Communicable diseases
4. Key Non-communicable diseases
5. Mental Health
6. Reproductive Health and Gender based violence
7. Communication Skills
8. Quality Improvement in Healthcare
A core group of UK based volunteers (which consists of medical doctors of different specialities, public health experts and educationalists) began syllabus formulation and there is ongoing work on content development.
2.3 Postgraduate Fellowship in Refugee Health Pilot in March 2018, Cox’s Bazar
A PGF pilot was conducted in March 2018 to assess, logistical feasibility with partners, the use of novel medical educational approaches, the use of foreign doctors as facilitators for learning, practicalities and logistics of on-site teaching (in the health clinics) and class room based teaching.
Three local NGOs involved in delivering healthcare to the Rohingya population participated by supporting their medical workforce to partake in the teaching sessions and clinic supervision sessions. This constituted approximately 25 healthcare professionals (21 doctors and 4 paramedics).
The International Organisation for Migration kindly made their logistics hub available for the teaching sessions. There were six dedicated teaching days spaced over three weeks, within which many different sections of the PGF was delivered. Various educational modalities were utilised including simulation training with manikins, small group case discussions, and communication skills training. Local Bangladeshi doctors also delivered parts of the teaching sessions. The teaching sessions were complemented with daily clinic site visits. The faculty provided teaching and feedback in the clinic setting where the PGF pilot participants were practising. Individualised feedback was provided, and subsequent teaching sessions were informed by the faculty’s experiences from the ‘front line’.
2.4 Evaluation of Postgraduate Fellowship pilot
The formal evaluation process for the pilot is still ongoing, however the feedback data from individual sessions, in addition to the responses from the participants and the faculty strongly suggest that the intervention was well received, highly relevant, had good uptake, and has scope for expansion. The participants also found the teaching (content and methodology) to be very relevant and enjoyable. They engaged well with the teaching sessions and appreciated the ability to learn with clinicians from other NGOs. The participants felt that the clinical site supervision was highly valuable,
and they appreciated the personalised feedback. Quantitative feedback obtained from 17 participants demonstrated that over 90% of the participants ‘agreed’ or ‘strongly agreed’ that 15 out of the 17 teaching sessions delivered ‘increased their knowledge’, ‘was relevant to their work in the camps’, and they ‘liked the style of teaching and felt
able to participate’. Qualitative feedback was largely very positive, and demonstrated a very good response to the content and delivery of the training sessions. The majority of constructive feedback featured around logistical issues such as suitability of teaching location, and catering etc.
Some examples of verbatim comments included:
‘I worked with some local agencies (for training) but your people are on the top of the list’
‘This experience will help me a lot in a camp for patient management. I feel it was very well organised, enjoyable, more than any other agencies’
‘Teaching style is fabulous. Very informative and useful. Really like the way of teaching’
‘Complete agreement that the (PGF) content matched the objectives, I felt the modalities were appropriate’
A more detailed evaluation report will be produced for the PGF in the coming weeks.
3. Next steps
We came across dozens of NGOs, all playing a role, demonstrating a strong commitment to improve the lives of the refugees. Despite the very challenging situation, this response (albeit uncoordinated at times) must serve to strengthen our faith in humanity.
Undoubtedly a robust political solution is needed for the resolution of this, and other similar crises. But notwithstanding that, humanity, all of us, owe it to these people that we do not forget their plight. We must not allow ourselves to be fatigued by the number of crises that face us. Furthermore, the magnitude of the issue must not make us paralysed in our response, Rumi (the famous Persian poet) once reflected how oceans are simply small drops of water. Effective collaboration and a realisation that no one entity has all the answers, can greatly enhance our efforts and enable us to better realise shared goals. Our combined willpower can impact a very positive change, and history can attest to that many times over.
It is very difficult to envisage any one intervention or action that is without limitations. I remain very optimistic by these preliminary experiences and results, that perhaps, one day, the PGF can develop into an established training intervention , which is transferable to different settings and can improve healthcare provisions for refugees across the globe.
The entire Doctors Worldwide (DWW) with special thanks to Dr Najeeb Rahman, Dr Owais Rahman, and Ms Georgia Venner
http://www.doctorsworldwide.org ; Charity Number: 1122671
Teaching Faculty and Bangladesh Field Team: Dr Hafiz Uddin, Dr Abid Shoaib, Dr Mir Ahmad, Dr Sayyada Khaki, Dr Mohammed Khaki, Dr Jobayer Chisti, Dr Vikarunnessa Begum, Mr Sayeed Ahmad
DWW volunteers and content developers
Photography – Dr Hafiz Uddin
Logistical Support – Dr Razwan Ashiq, and Dr Imran Siddiq
Rt Hon Stephen Timms MP for East Ham
Rt Hon Shelim Uddin Member of Bangladeshi Parliament
Mrs Jayada Begum
Lime Tree and Sinnott Healthcare; Wordsworth Health Centre and UCLPartners; for kindly facilitating leave arrangement to make this trip possible
Edinburgh Declaration 19th May 2018 on Migration, Ethnicity, Race and Health
The 1st World Congress on Migration, Ethnicity, Race and Health with over 700 participants from over 50 countries, is a landmark in the field of Health, bringing together different disciplines across the globe with the aim of fostering unity and cross fertilisation of ideas through an integrated dialogue on issues related to migration, ethnicity, race, indigenous and Roma populations.
We, the participants of the 1st World Congress on Migration, Ethnicity and Race and Health from over 50 countries, gathered in Edinburgh from 17th to 19th May 2018 DECLARE:
Movement of people within and across countries is, has been, and always will be an essential ingredient of human survival, success and prosperity
Migration and diversity offer many benefits globally and within countries, when the associated and often momentous challenges are overcome
Health and wellbeing are influenced enormously by the historical and political context, the composition and changing nature of the population and the organization of services in a society
Integrated dialogue on issues related to migration, ethnicity, race, indigenous and Roma populations is vital
The way people are defined and categorized by themselves and others is often a power struggle with implications for civic society, research, policy and practice and requires continuing debate
Racism, xenophobia and prejudice, discrimination, exclusion and exploitation damages the mental and physical health of individuals and groups, both minorities and majorities alike
Attention is required to meet the needs of the most vulnerable groups including survivors of torture, trafficked people, migrants in irregular situations, refugees and asylum seekers, and to prevent violence against women and girls.
The study of variations and differences in disease patterns and distributions provides essential scientific knowledge and important lessons for health policy and practice
An interdisciplinary approach is essential for understanding and tackling ethnic and racial inequities and ensuring sound ethical foundations for actions and subsequent policies
Investment in migrant and ethnic minority health and health care provides many benefits, including those going beyond health itself, and exceeds the costs incurred
- Eliminating barriers to access to healthcare and promoting protection of health of all people on the move, including those in an irregular situation, needs to be prioritised
- The full participation of migrants, ethnic minorities, indigenous populations and Roma in policy development, service planning, health care delivery, and research & evaluation is vital
- Relevant and appropriate data are required urgently for policy makers and service providers to tackle inequities
- Harmonization of, and agreement on, definitions and concepts should be sought by building on the consensus achieved at MERH 2018
- Strengthening collaboration between institutions, organizations and countries aimed improving the health of migrants and ethnic minorities
- A Global Society should integrate academic, professional and community work on health and health care in this field
Photo credit: Sam Schooler
Mindfulness is a type of meditation which dates back many centuries but has become more popular recently. In a nutshell, mindfulness meditation involves taking some time to pay attention to our breathing and our thoughts.
In our webinar on 19th April led by Dr Mark Coulson, we talked about Mindfulness and Mindfulness practice. As part of the IENE6 project, we have produced a number of videos on mindfulness which you can use for practicing mindfulness meditation. These can be accessed here
Many people practice mindfulness as part of a guided meditation, either in a group with others, or by themselves. A common misconception is that meditation necessitates clearing the mind, but really it means being aware of our thoughts, acknowledging that thoughts are transient, and letting them pass. A useful analogy is to imagine that your thoughts are like clouds that pass by in the sky. It is normal to find that your mind wanders. For many people, mindfulness meditation can take a bit of getting used to, but it becomes easier with practice.
However, mindfulness does not need a formal guided meditation, and it does not need to be done in a specific time or place. Rather, it can be a way of life. Often we go about our day in a state of ‘busyness’. Our lives are packed with commitments and tasks we need to do, and it’s easy to find ourselves running on a kind of autopilot, rushing from one thing to the next. Mindfulness is a way of being more present and having greater awareness of ourselves and our surroundings. This could be something as simple as paying attention to your breathing, noticing feelings or emotions, or even noticing things about your environment. You can be mindful by checking in with yourself and taking a few moments to reflect on your day, or even putting away your phone while you are with someone, and really listening to what they are saying. In this way you can be mindful anytime, anywhere: on your bus/train journey to work or even while doing the washing up!
The principles of mindfulness meditation as we know it today have been derived from religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism, however you do not have to subscribe to a particular religious belief in order to be mindful. Mindfulness is also a compassionate state of being, and involves accepting things without trying to change them or judging ourselves harshly.
In the webinar we received many good suggestions of resources and smartphone apps that can be used for practicing mindfulness, including Headspace, Mind the bump(for use in pregnancy), Breathworks, and Finding peace in a frantic world. Many of them are free, or have free sections. There are also many websites, YouTube videos and podcasts where you can find information about mindfulness. Try searching for the words ‘mindfulness’ and ‘meditation’.
This website has a lot of free information and resources about Mindfulness, and some free clips of mindfulness meditations. A fun one to try is the chocolate meditation! There are many books which have been written on mindfulness and meditation by authors such as Jon Kabat-Zinn, Mark Williams and Dr Danny Penman. You may also be able to find several books on Mindfulness and meditation at your local library.
Please note: we do not recommend that you listen to meditation clips while driving or operating machinery.
Details of our next webinar:
Please feel free to join us for our next webinar which will be taking place this Thursday the 17th of May at 12pm (UK time). It will be on Compassion and culturally appropriate psychological support and is being led by Professor Rena Papadopoulos. It is free to attend the webinar, and you can join by clicking on this link: http://breeze.mdx.ac.uk/iene6webinar/
Further details are here: http://www.ienerefugeehub.eu/uploads/network/other/59-webinar-compassion.pdf
What is your experience of mindfulness? Have you ever tried it? What did you think? Feel free to tell us in the comments section below.
For many people, mindfulness is a way of finding peace. Where do you find your peace?
A poem written by Veron Oliver
(Year 3 BSc Mental Health Nursing 2017 Student at Middlesex University London)
Sometimes I wonder…
Is cultural competence like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
The pinnacle achievable by just a few?
Is cultural competence a journey?
A way to be?
How will I know when it’s been achieved?
How deep will I have to look?
How much of me do I need to change?
Question, questions and more questions…
But as I traverse this experience from student to practitioner
I have to remember
I can never stop looking
I will strive to get there…
by Veron Oliver
I am not a poet but this morning I got this urge to write a poem. The trigger for this urge was the bad weather the whole of Europe is having at the moment.
My poem does not rhyme and it may not comply to any poetic styles you may know. It is the expression of my thoughts and feeling that have been going around my mind this morning. It took me 10 minutes to write and I have not attempted to polish in any way after I wrote it. My urge to write it was to share my sentiments with you.
Hope you appreciate the simplicity of the writing and the sincerity of thoughts and wishes.
By Irena Papadopoulos
I feel so cold today
We feel so cold today
It’s snowing, it’s raining
The wind is chilling
I wish my family
‘Keep warm and safe’
We wish our families
‘Keep warm and safe’
‘Don’t venture out unless you have to’
‘Don’t drive unless you must’
From radio and TV
From warm and comfy studios
‘Have hot drinks, eat well’
But spare a thought for the refugees
In tents or on the go
Freezing, hungry, trying to survive
Their warm homes miles behind
Searching for safety
Trying to survive
I cannot get the children
Out of my mind
How are they coping
What are they hoping
Is hypothermia creeping in
Is hunger weakening
So much suffering
So much sadness
When will the powerful
Stop playing the power games
When will the greedy
Stop wanting more
When will the fanatics
Start being reasonable
When will all of them and us
When will all of them and us
Stop the death and destruction
When will we all
Learn we are all one
I count my blessings
My warm home
The plentiful food
The choices I have
To stay in or go out
I tell myself ‘stop complaining about the cold’
I have safety
I have a good life
When will they have the same too?
1st March 2018
Dedicated to all the refugees and displaced people who are trying to survive not only this winter but in the long term
Last Sunday was my oldest grandson’s birthday. He is now eight years old!
To celebrate the occasion, his mum and dad organised a pool party for his friends. It was a lovely occasion. To see all the children jumping into the pool, diving under the water, climbing over the inflatable structure in the pool, swimming, splashing, throwing balls, shouting, and having fun, was a heartwarming delight. I was having such a good time watching the level of activity in the pool and listening to the happy excited sounds and their echos!
I wondered how a boy of similar age would be celebrating his birthday in a refugee camp. I was hoping that his parents along with his siblings and possibly some friends would be sitting in their tent singing the songs children sang in their homeland. I imagined that perhaps a volunteer in the camp knew it was the little boy’s birthday and as by magic delivered a birthday present and maybe a small cake for them to share. It is a happy occasion and so the father is commemorating it by taking a few photos on his mobile phone. But it is also a sad occasion for the parents who remember how they used to celebrate birthdays before being forced to leave their homes.
But children are more resilient than we give them credit for. Suddenly the little boy stands up and speaks: ‘ I am so happy it is my birthday today and so excited that we are all together and having fun. When I grow up I want to build a big house so we can all live together. I know I can do this because I have been watching the builders who are building a wall in the camp. I also want to build a big pool in the garden so that we can all have fun together in the water. And when is my birthday I will invite all my friends and family to my house and to my pool‘. Simple words describing a big dream. Mother sheds a tear, father smiles proudly. They are both so proud of the little boy who is mature beyond his years. They know he will grow into a good human being and they hope he will achieve all his dreams.